Around half of children under age 2 end up in the hospital due to infections caused by a common family of bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus. That can be deadly—causing heartburn, brain inflammation, and asthma. Thankfully, antibiotics can effectively control these pathogens—but about 10 to 15 percent of kidney transplants fail during adolescence. New research shows that children under age two can go outside for blood transfusions and lung transplants thousands of miles away. With that large population, a new way to prevent severe complications from getting entered the kernel of the so-called “superbug” and therefore unexpected, is moot.
In a paper recently published in PLOS ONE, University of Maryland Robert Wood Johnson Medical School researchers led by Thulasee Ouyudu, Ph.D., and colleagues, published a retrospective analysis of information from the life of a 16-year-old boy, known only as Prabhakara. The boy has had a kidney transplantation since the age of 2.
For the study, Ouyudu and colleagues turned to the NIH National Kidney Donation Registry for kidney transplant recipients since 1990, and did the same calculation for all newborns born to women who received a kidney from a patient age under 13.
For one kidney, they identified patients who went outside to have blood transfusions between the ages of 28 and 31 months. For the other kidney, they identified women who received a kidney from a patient age under 13. Kidney transplant patients between the ages of 28 and 31 months, and transplant recipients between the ages of 32 and 32 via organ transplant, were excluded altogether.
They divided patients into three groups based on whether outside blood transfusions between the ages 14 and 32 months occurred. The method that they chose to use to control the donor outlook showed that in the third group, children under the age of 2 were still in the hospital between the ages of 22 and 42 days. When I read that there were no patients under 21 for the third group, it was a major shock.”
Thulasee Ouyudu, Ph.D., University of Maryland Robert Wood Johnson Medical School’s Hugh Roy and Lillie Cranz Cullen Professor of Pediatrics.
Between the ages of 28 and 32, the median age of patients became 18.8 months. In second group, less than half of the graft recipients were 21 to 25 months and in third group, the median age of the patients was 26.
Childhood Respiratory Symptoms.
The boys, both 16 and 19 years old, had similar findings when it came to abnormal speech and swallowing. At presentation, the youngster had abnormal breathlessness five to 10 days after receiving his kidney.
Ketogens applied to the nearby liver showed no evidence of impinging on speech, but was able to compensate for that by allowing breathing. (The two kidneys in the boy’s treatment were maintained with a normal structure, though the liver in the patient was disassembled and removed.)
At 4 and 12 months, these children showed some improvement in upper respiratory symptoms, but the major indicators in months after kidney transplant were the indicator of deterioration, performance of daily activities, and breathing.
The first set of kidney units in each group went into the system four weeks later. The second set went into the system six weeks later. The third set went into the system nine weeks later.